NURS 641E Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT

NURS 641E Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT

NURS 641E Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT

Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Mar 24-30, 2022

Max Points:30


  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the pulmonary system and HEENT.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.
Topic 4 DQ 1

Mar 24-26, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the respiratory system or HEENT system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.



Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Mar 27, 2022, 4:49 PM(edited)


Replies to Vanessa Brown

Acute otitis media

Acute otitis media is an infection of the middle ear that can affect both children and adults, and can have symptoms of ear pain, fever, irritability, inflamed tympanic membrane, and fluid in the middle ear (McCance & Huether, 2018). It is the most common infection in infants and children, and is also the leading reason for healthcare visits and prescriptions in the world (McCance & Huether, 2018). Acute otitis media is mostly caused by bacterial pathogens, but respiratory viruses and certain predisposing factors can also lead to acute otitis media. The pathophysiology changes that can be seen include erythema to the tympanic membrane that progresses to opaqueness, and is accompanied by membrane bulging caused by accumulating fluid (McCance & Huether, 2018).

Patient education that should be provided would be to seek medical attention for a definitive diagnosis and follow-up because treatment could include antimicrobial therapy, especially in children under the age of two (McCance & Huether, 2018). The other symptoms of pain and fever should be medicated accordingly for the patient’s comfort, as per physician order. Breastfeeding is a protective factor, and the widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children has accompanied a reduction of incidence of otitis media (McCance & Huether, 2018). Ongoing infections with certain types could possibly lead to conductive hearing loss (where there is interference in air conduction), eardrum perforation, or spread of infection (McCance & Huether, 2018). Placement of tympanostomy tubes in the ears would be a way to prevent permanent damage if the infections are reoccurring. This is why prevention of otitis media is key. Some additional things to help prevent acute otitis media would be to avoid cigarette smoke, control allergies, prevent colds, and bottle feed babies at an upright angle.


McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology – e-book: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby.

Topic 4 DQ 2

Mar 24-28, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.



Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Mar 29, 2022, 8:42 PM


Replies to Nicole Santos


Augmentin is a combination antibiotic that contains both amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that helps fight bacteria in the body by binding to proteins in the bacterial cell wall and inhibits the cell wall from synthesis , and clavulanate is a beta-lactamase inhibitor that helps prevent bacteria from becoming resistant to amoxicillin by being structurally related to penicillin, deactivating the potential of beta-lactamase enzymes.

Some common side effects of augmentin include nausea vomiting, diarrhea, rash, itching, vaginal itching or discharge, or diaper rash. It is recommended to notify your physician if you have severe stomach pain, watery or bloody diarrhea, loss of appetite, little to no urination, or easy bruising or bleeding.

Augmentin is contraindicated in patients with severe kidney disease, allergy to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics, breast feeding, or taking birth control. It is also advised to voice taking augmentin with a high-fat meal, as it makes it difficult for the body to absorb medications.


Evans J, Hannoodee M, Wittler M. Amoxicillin Clavulanate. [Updated 2021 Dec 15]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: